Donald J. Patti

Archive for the ‘leadership’ Category

From Chaos to Crisis to Calm – 9 Tips to Recover Troubled Projects

In Business, Entrepreneurship, leadership, management, project management, Small Business on 8 February 2010 at 9:00 am

Dan Moore, a fellow Principal at Cedar Point Consulting, recently reminded me that, “You can’t manage chaos, but you can manage a crisis.” These are very wise words, but they reminded me of the early stages of a trouble project — one which is far behind schedule, well over budget, not delivering results, or all of the above.  If anything, a troubled project is chaos waiting for a strong leader to transition it to crisis, and then ultimately to calm.

Whether you’re a C-level executive, an entrepreneur or a project manager, you may not have encountered very many troubled projects in your career, so you may not be familiar with how to transition from chaos, to crisis, and finally to calm. We consultants are often brought in to deal with just such problems, so I have a few tips that should help:

  1. Don’t Panic! Douglas Adams references aside, you may have just learned that a key project is in trouble, but it’s important that you not panic. First of all, panic spreads, so you create chaos from crisis, and it won’t be long before your co-workers and your subordinates are panicked, too.Second, panicked people don’t reason effectively – they make “fight-or-flight” decisions instead of rational ones, so you’re far more likely to make a bad decision or push others to do so.
  2. Be Methodical. At Cedar Point Consulting, we have a 5-step process that we follow to recover projects – Review, Recommend, Respond, Transition, Close. While this is not the only way to recover a project, it does consistently work – by step three, the project is making progress once again. Regardless of the technique or methodology that you choose, don’t attempt to solve the project’s problems until you have an understanding of their causes. Do take measures to stop the bleeding, until you’ve effectively identified root causes.
  3. Read the Tea Leaves. Whether well run or not, nearly all projects have documents that tell you where the weaknesses are and whether they are being managed well. At minimum, even the smallest project should follow a standardized process ( project methodology); a charter (with a project goal); a project plan that includes a schedule, a budget, and assigned staff; regular meeting minutes and regular status reports. If these exist, review them to assess where problems are occurring. If they don’t, find out why.
  4. Be From Missouri (“Show Me”). Reading current project documents is a good start, but what if someone is fudging the numbers or painting a rosier picture than reality? For select documents, like staff hours, project schedule and project budget, confirm that they are reasonably accurate independently. Which brings us to the next tip…
  5. Use an Independent Third Party. Whether you hire a consultant or have someone in another part of your business lead your project recovery effort, they should be an independent third party. Having a friend of the Project Manager, the Project Manager’s immediate superior or one of their subordinates jump in to help is unlikely to be successful.
  6. Change Leadership or Change Process. At the most basic level, projects most often fail because either the project manager is not up to the task or the project management process is preventing them from succeeding. A good project manager controls time, scope, cost and quality on a project. If they don’t control at least two of these and influence all four, then they are likely to fail. Conversely, if they control all of these but the projects headed off a cliff, you probably need to switch project leadership.
  7. Increase Communication. When you’re trying to identify problems with a project, it helps to increase communication within the team. Schedule and require participation in regular meetings – daily, if necessary, like Stand-ups or Daily Scrums. Finally, increase the frequency of status reports to key parties, such as the client, the sponsor and key stakeholders, even if the reporting is informal.
  8. To Thine Own Self be True. There’s always a need for optimism in every situation, but good leaders are also honest to themselves and to others about the current state of a project. Depending upon how far behind the project truly is, consider reducing scope or resetting the schedule. Failing to do so may doom the project and the project team to yet another failure – one from which they may not recover.
  9. Start Small, Review Frequently.  After you’ve planned your recovery, be sure to start with small deliverables and shorter milestones, reviewing the project’s progress frequently to make sure the conservative short term goals are being met. While this is not normally the best approach with a project, starting small enables the team members to practice working together as a team before they have to tackle the larger, more challenging deliverables of the project.

The list above isn’t a comprehensive recipe for solving all the problems of a troubled project or for complete recovery, but it is a good start.  In a subsequent post, I’ll provide a list of ways to minimize the possibility of troubled projects altogether.

Donald Patti is a Principal Consultant with Cedar Point Consulting, a management consulting practice based in the Washington, DC area, where he advises businesses in project management, process improvement, and small business strategy.  Cedar Point Consulting can be found at http://www.cedarpointconsulting.com.

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When Taking Over Means “Steady as She Goes”

In Business, leadership, management, project management, Small Business on 15 November 2009 at 8:00 pm

You’ve taken a new leadership position, so you’re ready to take charge and make your mark. There’s just one problem – all’s well. The division you’ve inherited is running smoothly, or the project you’ve taken over is on target. What do you do? Here’s how to tell you’re in this leadership situation, and what to do if you are.

Confirming All’s Well

Because leadership changes usually occur when change is needed, it may be difficult to tell that nothing is wrong. But there are a number of indicators that appear when everything is just fine. If you answer “yes” to most of these questions, you’ve probably inherited a steady ship:

  1. Your predecessor retired. While some people are forced in to retirement and not all recent retirees were good leaders, it’s a good sign that all was managed well if your predecessor retired in the position.
  2. Your predecessor held the position for more than 10 years. Particularly in disciplines like information technology and marketing, ten years is a mark of seasoned leadership. While times may have changed and forced a change in leadership, it’s a good sign that your predecessor enjoyed the position enough to stay in it for a decade or more.
  3. Turnover was low. You’ve talked to the staff below the prior leader and they average five years or more with the company. This means the prior leader knew how to hire and retain the right people for their positions.
  4. The numbers are good. Whether the key performance measures for the division are customer satisfaction, profit-per-unit-sold or days-ahead-of-schedule, the key measures all look good, especially after some independent validation confirms they’re accurate.
  5. You’re allowed to phone your predecessor. When both sides haven’t parted on good terms, it’s rare that you’re allowed to pick up the phone and call your predecessor. When you ask, “Do you mind if I give the prior manager a call?” an answer of “yes” with no cautions or caveats is a good sign.
  6. The echo of kind words. In initial conversations about your predecessor and their work, co-workers and subordinates speak fondly of them and readily point to past successes.

If you’ve responded, “yes” to 4 of 6 of the indicators above or more, there’s a very good chance you’re inheriting a well run division or team that needs few short-term changes. The next section describes how to lead in this situation.

An Even Keel

Once you’ve confirmed that all is well, you have quite a management challenge ahead of you. (Yes, that’s correct – a challenge). Your predecessor was well liked, the team performed well, and you have to do at least as well for the transition to be considered successful. Here’s what you should and should not do:

  1. Give credit. Once you’ve confirmed prior success, give credit to your predecessor and the team, noting that you respect what they’ve already accomplished. This is more than phony ego-stroking, it’s confirmation for your staff that you knew can properly assess a business situation and take the correct actions moving forward. They’ll appreciate that you’re recognizing them, but they’ll respect your business intuition even more.
  2. Avoid radical change. While it’s very tempting, do not try to transform the organization to suit your own management style and don’t attempt a major reorganization. It’s likely to cause resentment by your co-workers and subordinates who were very happy with the way things were. Even worse, it may turn a productive team into an unproductive one.
  3. Make change slowly. An obvious converse of the prior point, if some changes are necessary, make them slowly. This will give people an opportunity to know and trust you, but it will also give you time to understand why the team was so successful in the past. After a little wait, you may find that some of the changes you’ve planned aren’t needed and it will definitely put the distance of time between you and your predecessor.
  4. Learn from the management style of your predecessor. They were successful sitting in the same chair you now hold – who better to study than them? Review old reports and deliverables, review performance results going a few years back, and see how the division ran in the past.
  5. Give them a call. Invite your predecessor to lunch and ask them what worked so well. What management style did they use, what methodologies or techniques. Also, if possible, ask them about your staff – what are their likes and dislikes, what makes team members tick, who doesn’t get along with whom? In a couple of hours, you’ll be a lot closer to making a smooth transition.
  6. Review goals, then consider more ambitious ones. It’s possible your predecessor already set some pretty solid target for the team, but there’s also a very good chance that the bar has been a little too low most recently. If this is the case, raise expectations a bit, work with the team to identify new opportunities to excel, then add them to your strategic plan. By doing so, you’re most likely to add value to an already good situation.
  7. Adjust. While it may not be YOUR management style, your predecessor’s approach worked well. Consider adopting all or part of it, even if it’s a stretch for you. You may find that you grow as a leader by adding arrows to your quiver in this way.

Same Crew, More Knots

As a manager and leader, taking on a successful team may be the most challenging experience you ever face. It’s likely you’re a leader because you can take charge in difficult times to steer a new course, but the winds of change simply aren’t blowing. In this case, the most prudent course is to learn from the successes of the past and adapt to the new team. It will take longer, but eventually your team will improve upon past successes. If nothing else, resist the temptation to immediately set a new course – ironically, you’re far more likely to fail.